Imperfect Active Indicative


The imperfect tense  is usually used to denote linear or continuous action in the past. It is built with:

• a stem,
• prefixed with an ε augment vowel,
• suffixed with an ο/ε theme vowel,
• followed by an ending.



1st Person

λυον I was loosing λύομεν we were loosing

2nd Person

λυες you were loosing λύετε you were loosing

3rd Person

λυε he/she was loosing λυον they were loosing

Note: the 1st Person Singular and 3rd Person Plural forms are identical.

The imperfect only occurs in the active voice.

When a verb begins with a vowel, instead of augmenting the verb with an ε prefix, the first vowel of the word lengthens. Thus ἀκούω becomes ἤκουον, ἐγείρω becomes ἤγειρον, and ἀγαπάω becomes ἠγαπων.

Why the KJV-Only Position is a Form of Idolatry


John Owen (1616-1683)

John Owen

Translations contain the word of God, and are the word of God, perfectly or imperfectly, according as they express the words, sense, and meaning of those originals. To advance any, all translations concurring, into an equality with the originals, so to set them by it, as to set them up with it, on even terms, much more to propose and use them as means of castigating, amending, altering anything in them, gathering various lections by them, is to set up an altar of our own, by the altar of God, and to make equal the wisdom, care, skill, and diligence of men, with the wisdom, care, and providence of God himself.

[John Owen (1616-1683), The Works of John Owen, Thomas Russell, ed., Vol. 4 (London: Richard Baynes, 1826), 461.]

Manners for Renaissance Men


So there be some kind of men that in coughing and sneezing make such noise that they make a man deaf to hear them; some others use in like things so little discretion that they spit in men’s faces that stand about them. Besides these there be some that in yawning bray and cry like asses. And yet such, with open mouth, will ever say and do what they list, and make such noise, or rather such roaring, as the dumb man does, when he strives with himself to speak. All these ill-favored fashions, a man must leave, as loathsome to the ear and the eye….


And when you have blown your nose, use not to open your handkerchief, to glare upon your snot, as if you had pearls and rubies fallen from your brains, for these be slovenly parts, enough to cause men, not so much not to love us, as if they did love us, to unlove us again….

When a man talks with one, it is no good manner to come near, that he must needs breathe in his face; for there be many that cannot abide to feel the air of another man’s breath, albeit there come no ill savour from him. These and like fashions be very unseemly, and would be eschewed, because their senses with whom we acquaint ourselves, cannot brook nor bear them.

[Giovanni della Casa (1503-1556), “The Perfect Gentleman” (from Il Galateo [The Etiquette]a treatise on manners, c. 1555; Robert Peterson, trans., 1576), in James Bruce Ross and Mary Martin McLaughlin, eds., The Portable Renaissance Reader,rev. ed., (New York, NY, USA: Penguin Books, 1977), 342.]